- Civil Law
What is Civil Law?
Civil law seeks to resolve non-criminal disputes such as disagreements over the meaning of contracts, property ownership, divorce, child custody, and damages for personal and property damage. A civil court is a place where people can solve their problems with people peacefully. The function of civil law is to provide a legal remedy to solve problems. Sometimes civil law is based on a state or federal statute; at other times civil law is based on a ruling by the court.
TYPES OF CIVIL CASES
Civil law covers a wide spectrum of topics. Some of these topics are:
- Consumer law
- International law
- Agricultural law
- Employment law
- Animal law
- Entertainment law
- Business law
- Family law
- Sports law
- Tax law
- Intentional torts such as libel, slander, defamation of character, battery and assault.
- Criminal law
Criminal Law or penal law involves prosecution by the government of a person for an act that has been classified as a crime. It is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. There are four theories of criminal justice: punishment, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. It is believed that by imposing sanctions for the crime, society can achieve justice and a peaceable social order.
Criminal Law deals with:
Arson, Assault, Battery, Bribery, Burglary, Child Abuse, Child Pornography, Computer Crimes, Controlled Substances, Credit Card Fraud, Criminal Defense, Drugs and Narcotics, DUI/DWI, Embezzlement, Expungements, Felonies, Fraud, Homicide, Identity Theft, Internet and Cyberspace Crime, Manslaughter, Money Laundering, Murder, Perjury, Prostitution, Rape, RICO, Robbery, Sex Crimes, Shoplifting, Theft, Weapons, White Collar Crime and Wire Fraud among others.
- Corporate law
Corporate Law is the area of law focusing on the legal methods of obtaining an official charter or articles of incorporation from the state for an organization, which may be a profit-making business, a professional business such as a law office or medical office or a non-profit entity which operates for charitable, social, religious, civic or other public service purposes and the legal ramifications of such an organization-business formation law. Corporations are governed by state corporation laws. Other laws that govern business operations include consumer protection law, contract laws, labor and employment law, anti-trust and trade regulation laws, securities, and others that deal with the day-to-day operations of a corporation<
- Administration Law
Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rulemaking, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. Administrative law is considered a branch of public law. As a body of law, administrative law deals with the decision-making of administrative units of government (e.g., tribunals, boards or commissions) that are part of a national regulatory scheme in such areas as police law, international trade, manufacturing, the environment, taxation, broadcasting, immigration and transport. Administrative law expanded greatly during the twentieth century, as legislative bodies worldwide created more government agencies to regulate the increasingly complex social, economic and political spheres of human interaction.
- Cyber law
Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature, such as theft, fraud, forgery, defamation and mischief, all of which are subject to the Indian Penal Code. The abuse of computers has also given birth to a gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the Information Technology Act, 2000.
We can categorize Cyber crimes in two ways
The Computer as a target:-using a computer to attack other computers.
E.g. Hacking, Virus/Worm attacks, DOS attack etc.
The computer as a weapon :- using a computer to commit real world crimes.
E.g. Cyber Terrorism, IPR violations, Credit card frauds, EFT frauds, Pornography etc.
Cyber Crime regulated by Cyber Laws or Internet Laws.
- Labour Law
Laws which deal with employees and employers and the relationship between them. Labour laws cover things like job security, industrial agreements, strikes and conciliation and arbitration.
- Constitutional Law
Law that relates to the constitution, as a permanent system of political and juridical government,as distinguished from statutory and common law ,which relate to matters subordinate to such constitution.
- Patent Law
The term patent usually refers to a right granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof. The additional qualification utility patent is used in the United States to distinguish it from other types of patents (e.g. design patents) but should not be confused with utility models granted by other countries. Examples of particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents and software patents.
Here is a list of some of the top Law Colleges in India and their official sites
- NLSIU Bangalore www.nls.ac.in/
- Gujarat National Law University (GNLU) www.gnlu.ac.in
- Symbiosis Society's Law College (SSLC), Pune www.symlaw.ac.in
- National Law University, Jodhpur www.nlujodhpur.ac.in
- NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad www.nalsarlawuniv.ac.in
- National Law Institute University, Bhopal (NLIU) www.nliu.com
- Faculty of Law, University of Delhi http://email@example.com
- Hidayatullah National Law University (HNLU), Raipurhttp://firstname.lastname@example.org hnlu.ac.in/
- Amity Law School www.amity.edu
- ILS Law College Pune www.ilslaw.edu
- Government Law College, Mumbai www.glc.edu/
- Tamil Nadu Dr.Ambedkar Law University, Chennai www.tndalu.org
- The W.B. National University of Juridical Sciences (NUJS) www.nujs.edu
Law Colleges of Andhra Pradesh
|Kakatiya University, Warangal||www.kuwarangal.com|
|Sri Venkateshwara University, Tirupati-||www.svuniversity.in/|
|Andhra University, Waltair||www.andhrauniversity.info|
|Osmania University, Hyderabad-||www.osmania.ac.in/|
|Achrya nagarjuna university||www.nagarjunauniversity.ac.in|
For Complete Law Colleges list in Andhra Pradesh visit - http://www.andhracolleges.com
Distance Learning Law Schools – The onset of rapid economic development and fast paced growth has induced the need of higher Education so much that today a qualification even through Distance Education is recognized worldwide, provided the student selects the correct University. How does one go about selecting the correct University? For starters, the University should be recognized by a credible Institution such as UGC (University Grants’ Commission) or the AICTE. A student must, in fact, ensure that the University that he / she aim to apply in is accredited.
Some of the best Centers for Distance Education in Law are as follows:
- Government Services
Lawyers are appointed in central services ( Indian legal service) through UPSC on grounds of their experience in the field. Post covered under Indian legal service are Law officers, Assistant Advisors, Dy. Legal Advisors and Legal Advisors.
State legal service appoints lawyers through SPSC exams in senior position in State police/Revenue/Judicial Departments. The basic qualification is degree in law, besides a degree in Arts / Science / Commerce / Agriculture. Average age limit is between 21 to 30 years.
In the judiciary, the posts are that of the magistrate, district and sessions judge, munsifs (sub-magistrate), public prosecutor, solicitors, attorney general, advocate general, notary and oath commissioner. There are also legal secretaries appointed in assemblies, law inspectors, legal officers in banks, judicial members of income tax, sales tax and excise departments, government advocates and staff in the registrar of companies' office. The examination for these posts take place periodically & is advertised as and when the vacancies occur.
- Magistrate and Sub-Magistrate
A candidate who qualifies in the Law Service Commission or State Public Service Commission is eligible for appointment as Magistrate and Sub-Magistrate ( munsif). While magistrate presides over criminal court, munsif delivers judgment on civil cases. Promotion may take a person higher up to sub-judge, District and Sessions Courts Judge and further (depending upon seniority and vacancy) to appointments in High Courts and the Supreme Court.
- Public Defenders
At the state, federal and local level, public defenders serve as court-appointed attorneys for those who cannot afford an attorney.
- Public Prosecutor
Govt. Pleaders represent the State in sessions courts and lends advice to officers in districts in all legal matters when called for.
Advices the government on legal matters and submit statement of important cases to Attorney General of India for his opinion or appearance in the Supreme court as necessary. A Solicitor General makes sure that the Attorney General performs his duties properly.
- Attorney General
Attorney general appointed by the president advices the government of India on such legal matters as may be assigned to him by the president. He has the right of audience in all courts of India and participate in the proceedings of Parliament without the right to vote.
- Advocate General
Similar to the post of Attorney General at centre, each state has an Advocate General appointed by State Governors. These offices generally prosecute cases that have statewide significance and work with local District Attorney's offices in the prosecution of cases. One of the best ways to gain trial experience quickly after graduation is to work at a state attorney's office.
- District Attorney
Assistant State Attorneys (also called district attorneys) are primarily responsible for criminal matters and prosecution. The District Attorney is usually an elected official. Depending upon the size of the District Attorney's office, they may have multiple units that focus upon different types of crime such as domestic violence, homicide, appellate work or sex crimes. If you work with a smaller District Attorney's office, you may have the option of handling diverse caseloads.
- Notary, Oath Commissioner
A notary is a legal practitioner of at least ten years experience in the profession. He is appointed on application to Central, State government to draw, verify, authenticate, certify and attest the execution of any deed. Oath commissioner is another established authority similar to the notary.
- Legal Advisers
Public sector undertakings and state and central government organisations also employ lawyers as advisers.
- Other fields
Lawyer can also work as legal counsel and legal advisers for firms, organizations and families. They can work as trustees of various trusts, as teachers, law reporters, company secretary and so on. Opportunities exist in the defense services too. Additional qualification along with law degree offers scope for a wide range of employment opportunities.
- Defence Service
They can work in the legal branches of defence departments such as the Indian army, Navy and Air force.
They conduct courts of enquiry and court martials of offending service personnel governed by the particular legislation acts.
- Legal Advisors
They work in legal departments of firms or for private clients. Legal advisors counsel their clients as to their legal rights and obligations and suggest the appropriate course of action in business and personal matters. They also check deeds, issue writs, collect information for affidavits and draft legal documents.
An advocate practises in the court of law. He represents a party (individual, group of individuals or a company) in a court of law. They present the facts of the case to the judge, cross examine witnesses and finally sum up the reasons as to why the court should decide in their clients' favour.
Solicitor is a kind of advisor to clients on a variety of matters that involves law. Solicitors explain the cases of his clients to the advocates. Solicitors need never appear in court directly. Solicitor's firms undertake cases related to their area of work.
Those with a good aptitude and taste for teaching, can go for LL.M and take up job in any University or Institute offering law courses to students.
If he has a flair for writing may act as an author and produce journals and legal commentaries and bring out law reports. They can write articles for magazines, news papers etc.
- Company Secretary
A law graduate and/or a member of the Institute of Company Secretaries can be employed as a company secretary in a firm.
Salaries of experienced attorneys vary widely according to the type, size, and location of their employer. A qualified lawyer employed in government department has pay packages as per the terms and conditions of the government. Those appointed as judges have good remunerations and other perks offered by the government. Lawyers preferring private sector have more lucrative pay packages. The earnings of lawyers working privately as advocate or consultant depends upon the number and nature of their clients.